Танк КВ-1
Содержание
Танк КВ-1
Создание и модернизация
Модернизация. Часть-2

Танк КВ-1Опыт использования средних и тяжелых танков в войне с Финляндией показал, что броня 30-40-мм уже не может обеспечить защиту от огня противотанковых пушек и, что управление многобашенными танками в бою весьма затруднительно. По этой причине новый тяжелый танк КВ-1 получил противоснарядное бронирование и был выполнен однобашенным, с классической компоновкой. В передней части сварного корпуса коробчатого сечения располагалось отделение управления, в средней — боевое отделение, а силовая установка находилась в задней части корпуса.


Танк выпускался с башней двух типов: сварной из листов толщиной 75-мм или литой с толщиной стенок 95-мм. В ходе производства бронезащита корпуса была усилена дополнительными 25-мм экранами, а толщина стенок литой башни доведена до 105-мм. Поэтому не удивительно, что КВ-1 выходили победителями из боя, неся на своей броне иногда многие десятки вмятин от снарядов. Первоначально устанавливалась 76,2-мм пушка Л-11, затем — Ф-32 того же калибра, а с 1941 г. КВ выпускался с 76,2-мм пушкой ЗИС-5. КВ-1 выпускался серийно с 1940 по 1942 г. Всего было выпущено 4800 машин КВ различных модификаций. На базе КВ-1 были созданы танки КВ-2, КВ-3, КВ-8, КВ-9 и другие.

Танк КВ

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KV-1 – video


The need to create a heavy tank, carrying protivosnaryadnym book it is well understood in the USSR. According to the Russian military theory, such tanks were needed for breaking the enemy’s front and break the organization or overcoming fortified areas. Most armies of developed countries had their own theory and practice to overcome the powerful fortified enemy positions, experience in this has been acquired even during the First World War. Such modern at that time as a fortified line, eg, Maginot Line or the Siegfried Line were considered even theoretically insurmountable. There is a misconception, that the tank was created during the Finnish campaign to break the Finnish permanent fortifications (Us Envoy). In fact, the tank began to be designed in the late 1938 of the year, when it became clear, that the concept towered heavy tank, like T-35, a deadlock. It was obvious, that the presence of a large number of towers is not an advantage. A giant tank sizes only aggravate it and do not allow the use of a sufficiently thick armor. Initiated the creation of the tank was the chief of the Red Army Corps Commander ABTU D. D. Pavlov.

KV-1

At the beginning of V.O.V incite KV-1 could not be no anti-German gun and no German tank, HF-1 could only just destroy using a 105mm howitzer and 88-mm anti-aircraft guns.


In the late 1930s, attempts to develop a tank reduced were made (compared to T-35) size, but with thicker armor. However, the designers did not dare to refuse the use of multiple towers: thought, that one gun will fight with infantry and suppress weapon emplacements, and the other must necessarily be anti — to fight with armored vehicles. new tanks, created in the framework of this concept (CMS and T-100), were two-tower, armed 76mm and 45mm guns. And just as an experiment developed more and smaller version of the QMS — with one tower. Due to this reduced length of the machine (on two supporting roller), It had a positive impact on the dynamic characteristics. Unlike its predecessor, KV (so called experimental tank) I received a diesel engine. The first instance of the tank has been manufactured at the Leningrad Kirov factory (LCO) in August 1939 of the year. Initially, the lead designer of the tank was A. FROM. Ermolaev, then — H. L. spirits.

30 November 1939 , the beginning of the Soviet-Finnish War. The military did not miss the chance to experience new heavy tanks. The day before the outbreak of war (29 November 1939 city) CMS, T-100 and HF off the front. They passed the 20th Brigade tyazhelotankovoy, medium tanks equipped with a T-28.

The first fight took HF 17 December in the breakout Hottinenskogo fortified Mannerheim Line.


The crew of the KV in the first fight:

– Lieutenant Kachehin (commander)
– AND. Golovachev Military Technician 2nd rank (driver mechanic)
– Lieutenant Polyakov (aimer)
– TO. Ladle (driver mechanic, Test Kirov factory)
– A. AND. Estratov (motorcyclist / charging, Test Kirov factory)
– P. AND. Vasiliev (transmissionschik / radist, Test Kirov factory)

The tank was successfully tested battle: it could not hit no enemy antitank gun. Chagrin war caused only that, that the 76-mm gun L-11 was not strong enough to deal with pillboxes. For this purpose it was necessary to create a new KV-2, armed 152mm howitzer.

Upon recommendation of the joint resolution GABTU Politburo(b) and SNK on 19 December 1939 of the year (the next day after the test) KV was adopted. As to the SMC tanks and T-100, they also showed themselves in a rather favorable light (however, QMS at the beginning of the fighting hit a mine), but weapons were not adopted, because with higher firepower they carry less thick armor, had a large size and weight, and worse dynamic characteristics.

KV-1

Production

Serial production of KV tanks began in February 1940 year at the Kirov plant. In accordance with the decision of SNK and the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) from 19 June 1940 , the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (ÇTZ) also instructed to begin production of HF. 31 December 1940 year CTZ collected first HF. At the same time the plant began construction of special housing for the assembly of HF.


On 1941 it was planned to release 1200 KV tanks of all modifications. Of these, at the Kirov plant — 1000 PC. (400 KB-1, 100 KB-2, 500 KB-3) and further 200 KB-1 CHTZ. However CTZ only a few tanks were collected before the war. just 1940 It was built by 139 KV-1 and 104 KB-2, and in the first half of the year 1941 of the year — 393 (including 100 KB-2).

KV-1

After the outbreak of war and mobilization of industrial production of tanks at the Kirov plant has increased significantly. Production of KV tanks was given priority, therefore, to the production of many components and assemblies for the heavy tanks joined the Leningrad Metal Plant and Izhora, as well as other plants. Also in October, the military took three experienced HF: 1 T-150 and 2 T-220.

However, starting in July 1941 LB year started evacuation in Chelyabinsk. The plant is located on the territory of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. 6 October 1941 the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant was renamed the Chelyabinsk Kirov Plant Narkomtankoproma. this plant, received informal name "Tankograd", He became a major manufacturer of heavy tanks and self-propelled guns in the Great Patriotic War.


In spite of difficulties, associated with the evacuation of the plant and the deployment of the new place, in the second half 1941 , the front was 933 KV tanks, at 1942 year there were already built 2553 (including HF and HF-1c-8). In August 1942 , the KV-1 was pulled from production and replaced by a modernized version — KV-1S. One of the reasons for modernization were the great weight of the tank and the unreliability of its transmission. In total, it was released: 1 experienced (IN-0) and 3162 serial tank KV-1, 204 HF-2 and 102 KB-8, and 1 T-150 and 2 T-220. in total 3472 KV tanks.

Also in blockaded factory № 371 November 1941 by 1943 year of backlogs of unused buildings and towers and units assigned to CHKZ, We collected at least another 67 KB-1 (number C-001 — FROM-067), armed with guns as the F-32, tak i ZIS-5. Since these machines were only for the needs of the Leningrad Front, cut off from the "Great Land", in reports GABTU they do not fall. The total output of KV tanks, in this way, It can be estimated to date in 3539 tanks.

KV-1

Design

For 1940 , the serial KV-1 is a truly innovative design, It embodies the most advanced ideas of the time: individual torsion bar suspension, reliable protivosnaryadnym book, diesel engine and a powerful one-stop tool in the framework of the classical layout.


though individually the solution of this set repeatedly implemented previously in other foreign and domestic tanks, KV-1 was the first combat vehicle, embody a combination of. Some experts see it as a landmark car in the world tank manufacturing, have a significant impact on the subsequent development of heavy tanks in other countries. Classic layout on the serial Soviet heavy tanks was used for the first time, which allowed the KV-1 to obtain the highest level of security and a large modernization potential in the framework of this concept compared to the previous model series heavy tank T-35 and experienced QMS machines and T-100 (all — towered type). The basis of classical configuration armored housing is split fore and aft to consistently control the separation, fighting compartment and engine-transmission compartment. The driver and gunner stationed in the department of management, Three other crew members had jobs in the fighting compartment, is united armored housing middle part and the tower. There’s also located a weapon, ammunition to it and some of the fuel tanks. The engine and transmission were installed in the rear of the vehicle.

KV-1

Armor hull and turret

Armored tank body welded from rolled armor plate thickness 75, 40, 30 and 20 mm. Armor protection of ravnoprochnaya (armor plate with a thickness different from 75 mm were used only for horizontal machine booking), protivosnaryadnym.


mor plate, the frontal part of the machine installed at rational angles. Tower serial HF produced in three embodiments: cast, Welded rectangular niche and welded with rounded niche. thickness of armor have been welded towers 75 mm, in cast — 95 mm, as the cast armor was less strong. In the second half 1941 Year welded turret side armor plates and some tanks have been further strengthened — they bolt secured 25-mm armor shields, And between the main screen and armor remained air gap, ie this variant KV-1 actually got spaced reservations. This was done to strengthen the protection of the German 88-mm anti-aircraft guns. Heavy tanks the Germans began to develop only in the 1941 year (heavy tank in the German blitzkrieg theory has no use), therefore 1941 years even the staff to book KV-1 is basically a redundant (HF armor no infestation regular 37-mm and 50-mm PHE Wehrmacht, but it could be broken 88mm, 105-mm and 150 mm cannons). Some sources erroneously indicated, the tanks were manufactured with thick rolled armor 100 mm or more — in fact, this figure corresponds to the sum of the thickness of the main armor of the tank and the screen.

KV-1

The decision on the "Display" setting was made in late June 1941 of the year, after the first reports of casualties from the fire of the German anti-aircraft guns, However, this program has been phased out in August, as the chassis does not withstand machine weight, increased to 50 tonnes. This problem has been partially overcome by installing later cast rollers ruggedized. Shielded tanks used in the North-West and the Leningrad Front.


The frontal part of the tower with loopholes for guns, formed by the intersection of four spheres, It was cast separately and welded to the rest of the tower bronedetalyami. gun mantlet was a cylindrical segment bent and rolled armor plate had three openings — for cannons, coaxial machine gun and sight. The tower was placed on the shoulder straps with a diameter 1535 mm armored fighting compartment roof and fixed grippers avoid stalling under strong roll or roll-over of the tank. Inside the turret are marked off in thousandths firing from covered positions.

The driver is centered in front of the tank armored housing, on his left hand were workplace-wireless operator. Three crew members were located in the tower: left of the gun had jobs gunner and loader, and the right — tank commander. Planting and crew output produced by two round hatch: one in the tower above the working place commander and one on the roof above the working place housing arrow-radio operator. The housing also had of the bottom hatch for emergency escape of tank crews and a number of hatches, hatches and technological openings for loading ammunition, access to fuel tanks, other nodes and aggregates machines.


KV-1

Padded at the prison city Venev Soviet tank KV-1. The tank belonged to the 32nd Tank Brigade, He was hit 27 November 1941 , during the battle for the city. On the right side of the tower is not less visible 20 hits of all sizes, shot through the barrel and the gun. The trunk is specifically broken tanker Hermann Bix (German Bix), apparently, of 37 mm tank gun Pz III, because, otherwise stop the tank was not possible. tank crew fate unknown.

weaponry

Tanks first release fixes a gun L-11 caliber 76,2 mm with ammunition 111 shots (according to other sources — 135 or 116). Interesting, that the original project included also a coaxial 45 mm gun 20K, although the armor 76 mm L-11 tank gun is almost not inferior to anti-20K. Apparently, stereotypes strong need for a 45-mm anti-tank gun with 76mm explained its higher firing rate and a large ammunition. No rope on prototypes, sent to the Karelian Isthmus, 45-mm cannon removed and installed in its place a machine gun DT-29. Subsequently L-11 gun was replaced by a 76mm cannon F-32 with the same ballistics, and in the fall 1941 year — gun ZIS-5 with a greater length of the barrel in 41,6 caliber.

ZIS-5 was mounted on journals in the tower and was completely balanced. The tower itself with an instrument ZIS-5 was also equilibrated: its center of mass located on the geometric axis of rotation. ZIS-5 had a vertical angles interference from -5 to + 25 °, a fixed position of the tower she could be induced in a small traverse sector (t. n. "Jewelry" leveling). The shot produced by manual mechanical shutter.

Ammunition gun was 111 shots unitary loading. Shots were placed in the tower and along both sides of the fighting compartment.

The tank 1 installed HF three 7.62mm gun DT-29: paired with a weapon, as well as foreign exchange and stern ball mount. Ammunition for all diesel fuel was 2772 chuck. These guns mounted in such a way, that they can be removed, if necessary, with mounts and used outside of the tank. Also for self-defense crew I had several hand grenades F-1 and sometimes supplied with a gun for firing flares. At every fifth HF anti-aircraft turret mounted for DT, however, in practice anti-aircraft guns rarely put.

KV-1

Attack Soviet tanks KV-1 of the Stalingrad Front, supported by infantry

Engine

HF-1 was equipped with the four-stroke V-shaped 12-cylinder diesel engine of V-2K power 500 l. from. (382 kW) at 1800 rev / min, subsequently due to a general increase in the mass of the tank after the installation heavier towers cast, screens and cancellations planing edges of armor plates brought to the engine power 600 l. from. (441 kW). Starting the engine ensured the starter ST-700 output 15 l. from. (11 kW) or compressed air capacity of the two tanks 5 l in the combat engine room. KB-1 had a dense arrangement, at which the main fuel tanks 600-615 liter volume and placed in a combat, and engine-transmission compartment. In the second half 1941 year due to lack of diesel V-2K, which were made then only the factory number 75 in Kharkov (in the autumn of the same year she began the process of evacuation to the Urals plant), HF tanks 1 produced a four-stroke V-shaped 12-cylinder petrol engines M-17T capacity 500 l. from. spring 1942 was issued a decree on re-equipment of all are in the ranks of tanks KV-1 to M-17T engines back on diesel engines in-2K — evacuated factory number 75 established enough of production at the new location.

Transmission

KV-1 was equipped with a manual transmission, which included:

– multidisc main clutch "steel Ferodo" dry friction;
– five-speed gearbox tractor type;
– two multiple-disk friction clutch board "steel on steel";
– two onboard planetary gear;
– tape floating brake.

All transmission control actuators — mechanical. When operating in the army the greatest number of complaints and claims against manufacturer defects caused it and work extremely unreliable transmission group, especially in congested tanks KV issue of wartime. Virtually all reputable published sources is recognized as one of the most significant shortcomings of tanks and KV series machines on the basis of its low reliability of the transmission as a whole.

KV-1

Division Soviet submachine before the fight. For soldiers to build two Soviet heavy tank KV-1 project 1942 of the year, later production series. Author’s title shot: "Penal Battalion".

Chassis

Suspension machines — individual torsion bar with internal shock absorbers for each of the 6 stamped gable of rollers of small diameter on each side. Next to each track roller welded to the hull of travel stops suspension balancers. Driving wheels with removable gear rings lantern meshing located behind, and sloths — the front. The upper branch tracks supported by three small rubberized stamped supporting rollers on each side. AT 1941 , the back-up and support rollers technology was transferred to the casting, last lost rubber tires because of the total at the time of rubber shortage. Mechanism track tension — screw; each caterpillar consisted of 86-90 odnogrebnevyh shoe width 700 mm increments 160 mm.

electrics

Wiring in the tank KV-1 was a single-wire, the second wire served hull of the machine. The exception was the emergency lighting circuit, which was a two-wire. power sources (operating voltage 24 AT) It was GT-4563A generator with relay control PPA-24 power 1 kW and four series-connected rechargeable batteries 6 of the brand-STE-128 total capacity 256 A·no. electrical consumers included:

– electric turret;
– exterior and interior car lighting, lighting equipment scopes and scales of measuring instruments;
– External sound and alarm circuit from the landing to the carriage of the machine;
– instrumentations (ammeter and voltmeter);
– means of communication — the radio station and tank intercom;
– electrical motor group — the starter ST-700, start relay RS-371 or RS-400, etc.. d.

KV-1

Soviet tank KV-1 moves in the forest

Surveillance and sights

Total visibility of the tank KV-1 back in 1940 It was estimated in a memo L. Mehlis by military engineer Kalivodom as extremely poor. Vehicle commander had an observation unit in the tower — panorama PTK, which had a 2.5-fold increase, and the field of view 26 city, board periscope and observation slit.

The driver in the battle waged observed through an observation unit with triplex, which protects the armored shutter. This observation device installed in an armored hatch-stopper for the frontal armor plate in the longitudinal axial line of the machine, and periscope. In a quiet environment, this hatch-stopper can be pushed forward, providing a driver-mechanic more convenient immediate review of his workplace.

For firing KV-1 was equipped with two cannon sights — telescopic TOD-6 direct-fire and periscope PT-6 shooting from the closed position. Head periscope sight was protected by an armored hood special. To be able to fire in a night-time sight scales were lighting devices. ESP and aft guns DT could be equipped with a PU scope of a sniper rifle with a threefold increase.

Means of communication

communication means includes a radio-71 TK-3, later 10R-26 or 10RK. On a number of tanks from a lack of established aviation radio 9P. HF-1 tank was equipped with internal intercom TPU-4-Bis on 4 subscriber. 10R radio or 10RK is a set of transmitter, receiver and umformerov (one-anchor motor-generators) for their food, be connected to the onboard power supply voltage 24 AT.

10P is a shorter tube-simplex transceiver, operating in the frequency range of 3,75 to 6 MHz (respectively wavelengths from 80 to 50 m). Parked in a telephone communication range (voice) mode reaches 20-25 km, the move is somewhat decreased. Most of the communication range can be obtained in telegraph mode, when the information is transmitted in Morse code telegraph key, or other discrete coding system. Frequency Stabilization carried removable quartz resonator, stepless adjustment of the frequency of missing. 10P allows you to link two fixed frequencies; quartz resonator used for another change of their 15 pairs included radio.

10RK radio is a technological improvement over the previous model 10P, it has become easier and cheaper to manufacture. This model has an opportunity to smooth the operation frequency, number of quartz resonators was reduced to 16. Characteristics of the communication range not undergone significant changes.

Tank intercom TPU-4-Bis allowed to negotiate between the tank crew members, even in very noisy environment and the headset connect the headset (headphones and laringophones) to the radio for external communication.

KV-1

tank modifications HF

HF was the progenitor of a whole series of heavy tanks. The first "descendant" of HF was the KV-2, armed with 152-mm M-10 howitzer, installed in a high tower. KV-2 tanks with heavy self-propelled guns were intended, because it intended to deal with pillboxes, but fights 1941 year showed, they are an excellent way to combat with German tanks — their frontal armor did not break through the shells of any German tank, and KV-2 missile, It costs him get into any German tank, almost guaranteed to destroy it. Fire HF-2 can only lead from the spot. They began to produce in 1940, and shortly after the start of the Great Patriotic War, their production was curtailed.

AT 1940 it was planned to start production of tanks and other series HF. As an experiment produced a CV to the end of the year (T-150) with armor 90 mm (with a 76 mm cannon F-32) and two more (T-220) with armor 100 mm (one with a 76 mm cannon F-32, the other — with a 85 mm cannon F-30). But beyond prototyping did not get. All of them in October 1941 towers have been equipped with standard HF-1 with the gun F-32 and decrease the front.

In September 1941 4 tank KV-1 (including one after repair) equipped with a flamethrower. He was placed in the frontal part of the body in a small annexe instead of machine gun course. The rest remained unchanged arms. In April 1942 g. on the basis of HF was established flame tank KV-8. Housing remained unchanged, installed in the tower flame thrower (ATU ATU-41 or-42). Instead of a 76-mm gun had to install a 45-mm gun mod. 1934 year with camouflage jacket, reproducing the outlines of a 76-mm cannon (76-mm with Gun flamethrower not placed in the tower).

In August 1942 it was decided to start production of the KV-1S ("C" means "fast"). Leading designer of the new tank — H. F. Shamshuryn. tank eased, including due to the refinement of the armor (eg, side and stern hull thinned to 60 mm, forehead cast towers — up 82 mm). It still remains impenetrable to the German guns. But the mass of the tank was reduced to 42,5 tonnes, and the speed and the permeability increased significantly.

In 1941-1942, the missile modification tank was developed — KV-1K, equipped KARST-1 system (short tank artillery rocket system).

For series KV also include KV-85 and SU-152 self-propelled (KB-14), but they were created on the basis of the KV-1S and therefore are not considered here.

KV-1

German engineers building a bridge over the collapse of the Soviet tank KV-1. Machine Issue May 1941 the year of the 27th Tank Regiment 14th Tank Division of the 7th Mechanized Corps of the Western Front. initially, the tank in May 1941 He has been sent to Kharkov armored School, and with the beginning of the war as part of a tank battalion arrived in Kharkov BTU 14th Panzer Division. According to the "Report on the motion of a material part of the 27 th TP 14th TD" 15 July 1941 year "KV-M first tank battalion, coming from the repair in Vitebsk region of Vitebsk highway, failed to bridge ".

Experience combat use

Except essentially experimental use HF in the Finnish campaign, Tank for the first time went into the fight after the German attack on the USSR. The first meeting of the German tank with HF were brought into a state of shock. Tank hardly penetrated a German tank guns (eg, German subcaliber projectile 50 mm tank gun directs a vertical distance from the HF board 300 m, and the sloping forehead — only from a distance 40 m). Antitank artillery was also ineffective: So, armor-piercing projectile 50-mm anti-tank gun Pak 38 allowed to hit the HF under favorable conditions at a distance of just less 500 m. More effective was the fire a 105 mm howitzer and 88-mm anti-aircraft guns.

However, the tank was "raw": It impacted the novelty of the design and implementation of the haste in production. Especially a lot of trouble brought a transmission, can not withstand heavy tank — she often broke down. And if you really do not have HF in open battle unmatched, in the circumstances, many HF retreat even with small breakdowns had to throw or destroy. Repair or evacuate them there was no way.

Several HF — abandoned or wrecked — have been restored by the Germans. However, trophy HF were used for a short time — the effect the lack of spare parts at all the same frequent failures.

HF caused a controversial military. On the one hand — invulnerability, on the other hand — the lack of reliability. And with the cross is not so clear: Tank hardly overcome steep slopes, it could not withstand the many bridges. Besides, he destroyed any way — for it could not move wheeled vehicles, because of what HF ​​always put at the end of the column. On the other hand, Tank excellently proved itself on the battlefield, the organization tank ambushes and counterattacks German mechanized columns.

Generally, according to some contemporaries, HF had no special advantages over T34. Tanks were equal in firepower, both were low vulnerability to anti-tank artillery. In this T-34 had the best dynamic characteristics, It was cheaper and easier to manufacture, which is important in wartime.

KV-1

After battle. German shot tank column Soviet KV-1C (high-speed) and his dead crewman. Voronezh front

The disadvantages of HF also include unsuccessful arrangement hatches (eg, the tower is only one hatch, a fire quickly get through the three of us it was very difficult).

In order to eliminate the numerous complaints summer 1942 , the tank has been redesigned. By reducing the thickness of armor decreased machine weight. various major and minor faults have been eliminated, including the "blindness" (set a commander’s cupola). The new version was named the KV-1S.

Creation of the KV-1S was justified step under heavy first phase of the war. However, this step is only brought to the HF medium tanks. The army has not received full (by later standards) heavy tank, which would have differed sharply from the average of the combat power. Such step would be armament 85 mm gun. But further experiments did not get, since conventional 76-mm tank gun in 1941-1942 without difficulty struggled with any of the German armored vehicles, and the reasons for the escalation of the arms was not.

However, after visiting the German Army Pz. WE ("Tiger") with 88-mm cannon all HF overnight outdated: they were unable to fight on equal terms with German heavy tanks. So, eg, 12 February 1943 , during one of the fights to break through the siege of Leningrad Three "Tiger" of the 1st company 502nd heavy tank battalion destroyed 10 KV. The loss Germans did not have — they can shoot from a safe distance HF. situation summer 1941 year repeated the exact opposite.

HF all modifications used until the end of the war. But they were gradually replaced by more sophisticated heavy IS tanks. Ironically, the last operation, in which the HF used in large quantities, was the breakthrough of the Mannerheim line 1944 year. Commander Karelian front K. A. Meretskov personally insisted, to his front was exactly HF (Meretskov commanded the army in the Winter War and then literally fell in love with this tank). Surviving HF collected just one and sent to Karelia — to, where he once started his career in the machine.

By that time, a small amount of HF is still used as a tank. Basically, after the dismantling of the tower serve as a recovery vehicle in subdivisions, equipped with the new heavy tanks IS.

KV-1

Tommy-Guards officer Afanasiev are the tanks KV-1 on the offensive. Karelian isthmus

In the service of the Wehrmacht

Captured KV-1 in the Great Patriotic War in the service of the Wehrmacht under the designation:

– Panzerkampfwagen KV-IA 753(r) — KB-1,

– (Sturm)Panzerkampfwagen KV-II 754(r) — HF-2,

– Panzerkampfwagen KV-IB 755(r) — KB-1c.

Examples of military applications

– The crew of the KV-1, near the city of Raseiniai (in Lithuania) in June 1941 the year during the day restrain kampfgruppu (battle group) 6-Panzer General F. landgrave, equipped mainly with light Czech tanks Pz.35(t). This battle has described the commander of the 6th Motorized Infantry Brigade E Division. raus (Commander kampfgruppy "Raus"). One of the HF in the battle 24 June turned left and took up a position on the road, parallel to the offensive kampfgruppy "Zeckendorf" under the command of Lieutenant Colonel E. background Zeckendorf once behind kampfgruppy Rouse. KV-1 stopped for a while kamfgruppu Zeckendorf, which was slightly less than half Panzer. This episode was the basis for the legend of, one KV stopped all alleged 4th German Panzer Group Colonel-General E. Gepner. war diary of the 11th Tank Regiment, 6th etc. reads: "Bridgehead kampfgruppy Rouse was withheld. ante meridiem, as a reserve, reinforced company and the headquarters of the 65th Tank Battalion was pulled back to the left route to the intersection of roads north-east Raseynyaya. Meanwhile, Russian heavy tank blocked communication kampfgruppy Rouse. Because of this connection to kampfgruppoy Rouse was interrupted for the entire second half of the day and following night. Battery 8,8 Flack was sent to the commander to fight this tank. But her actions were as unsuccessful, as well as 10.5 cm Battery, which fired on the instructions of a forward observer. Besides, failed attempt to attack a group of sappers to undermine the tank. It was impossible to get close to the tank because of heavy machine-gun fire ". lone HF, in question, fought kampfgruppoy Zeckendorf. After a night raid sappers, only scratch the tank, the second time they do with the help of 88-mm anti-aircraft guns that could set back the tank. tank Group 35(t) distracted by their movement HF, and calculation 8,8 cm FlaK got six hits in the tank, but only three were able to penetrate tank armor. However, the heroism and courage of the crew of a lonely Soviet tank KV-1 was impressed enemy. German soldiers became obvious, that the Soviet tankers, equipped with different weaponry, It is a serious opponent, and the war will be severe and prolonged, even with its disastrous early. Dead unknown Soviet tankers Germans were buried with military honors.

– WITH. TO. Slyusarenko describes the battle HF under the command of Lieutenant Kahhar Hushvakova from 1st tyazhelotankovogo Battalion 19th Tank Regiment 10th Tank Division. Since out of order CAT, tank crew on the request was abandoned as a disguised weapon emplacement at Staro-Konstantinov (Southwestern Front). Tankers two days of fighting with the enemy. They set fire to two German tanks, Three fuel tanks, Nazis destroyed many. Nazis doused the bodies of dead heroes tank with gasoline and burned.

– It was fought on the HF senior lieutenant Zinovy ​​Kolobanov (1-Panzer), in one fight 20 August 1941 of the year (in post-war journalism mistakenly mentioned date 19 August) Gatchina (Krasnogvardeysky) destroyed 22 German tanks and two anti-tank guns, and Lieutenant Semyon Konovalov (15-Tank Brigade) — in battle 13 July 1942 year in the area of ​​the farm Nizhnemityakin Tarasovskoye district of Rostov region 16 tanks and 2 enemy armored car.

KV-1

KV-1 tank is leaving Moscow plant after repairs

Other facts

At the beginning of the war, the Germans are inclined to mysticism tank KV-1 was nicknamed «Gespenst» (translated from nem.- "ghost"), as projectiles standard 37-mm anti-tank gun of the Wehrmacht often not allowed to even dent his armor. This episode is described in detail in his memoirs Gen. Col. Erhardt rous, whose group tried to destroy a Soviet tank.

– 6-I Panzer Division 48 hours fought with only one Soviet tank KV-1. Pyatidesyatitonny KV-1 shot and crushed his convoy of tracks 12 trucks with supply, which was captured by the Germans from the city Raysenyay, then aimed shots destroyed artillery battery. Germans, of course, fired back, but to no avail. Projectiles antitank guns are not allowed to even dent his armor. What guns — armor of the KV-1 could not penetrate even the 150-millimeter howitzers. true, Routh soldiers managed to immobilize a tank, exploding a bomb under his caterpillar. But "Klim Voroshilov" and was not going to go anywhere. He took a strategic position on the only road, leading Raysenyay, and two days delayed promotion division (around it the Germans could not, because the road passes through the swamp, which sank army trucks and light tanks). Finally, by the end of the second day of the battle Routh succeeded to shoot a tank of flak. But, when his soldiers cautiously approached the steel monster, turret suddenly turned in their direction — apparently, the crew was still alive. Just thrown in the tank hatch pomegranate put an end to this incredible battle.

In one version of the text of the famous song "On the field tanks rumbled …" contains the lines: "Goodbye, Maroussia expensive, And you, KV, my brother … ".

Estimations and opinions

Lieutenant Helmut Ritgen of the German 6th Panzer Division:

… radically changed the concept of tank warfare itself, machine "HF" ushered in an entirely different level of arms, weight of body armor and tanks. German tanks suddenly moved into the category of extremely anti-personnel weapons … now become a major threat to the enemy tanks, and the need to combat them require new weapons — powerful long-barreled guns of greater caliber

He’s about the battle with KV tanks under RASEINIAI:

– These hitherto unknown Soviet tanks caused the crisis in the shock group "Zeckendorf", because it did not have weapons, pierce their armor. The shells just bounced off of Soviet tanks. 88-mm anti-aircraft guns while it was not possible to apply. Marines during the Russian tank attack in panic began to recede. HF superheavy Soviet tanks were coming to our, and our heavy fire did not bring any result. HF rammed command tank and turned it, commander wounded.

KV-1

Tankers 6th Guards Tank Regiment breakthrough learn new tanks KV-1C (2-Guards Tank Army, Colonel General SI. Bogdanov).

Performance characteristics of the HF-1

Crew, pers.: 5
years of production: 1939—1942
The number of issued, PC.: 3230
The layout: classical

Weight KV-1

– 47,5 tonnes

Dimensions KV-1

– body Length, mm: 6675
– housing width, mm: 3320
– Height, mm: 2710
– Clearance, mm: 450

Bumper KB-1

– Type broni: steel rolled homogeneous
– housing forehead (top), mm / city.: 75 / 30°
– housing forehead (middle), mm / city.: 60 / 70°
– housing forehead (through), mm / city.: 75 / 25°
– body board, mm / city.: 75 / 0°
– housing feed (top), mm / city.: 60 / 50°
– housing feed (through), mm / city.: 75 / 0—90°
– Bottom, mm: 30—40
– corps roof, mm: 30—40
– tower forehead, mm / city.: 75 / 20°
– gun mantlet, mm / city.: 90
– board towers, mm / city.: 75 / 15°
– tower feed, mm / city.: 75 / 15°
– tower roof, mm: 40

Armament KV-1

– Caliber guns and stamp: 76-mm L-11, F-32, F-34, ZIS-5
– gun type: nareznaya
– barrel length, calibres: 41,6 (for ZIS-5)
– gun ammunition: 90 or 114 (depending on the modification)
– sights: telescopic TOD-6, periscope PT-6
– Shotgun: 3 × DT

Engine KV-1

– engine’s type: V-shaped 12-cylinder four-cycle diesel liquid cooling
– Engine power, l. from.: 600

The rate of KV-1

– Road speed, kmh: 34
– Cruising on the highway, km: 150—225
– Cruising cross country, km: 90—180
– power density, l. p. / m: 11,6
– suspension type: torsionnaya
– Unit ground pressure, kg / cm²: 0,77

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История создания тяжелого советского танка КВ-1

В 1938 году СССР нужен был танк, который бы имел тяжелое противоснарядное бронирование, способный прорывать хорошо укреплённые линии обороны противника.

Первыми танками, претендующими на эту роль, были тяжелые танки СМК и Т-100. Это был танки линии тяжелых многобашеных машин, которые имели схожие черты, а именно длинную гусеничную базу, несколько башень с орудиями различного калибра, огромные размеры и вес, а также малую проходимость. После полевых испытаний предпочтение было отдано танк СМК.

Кв 1 танк

Разработка же тяжелого танка КВ-1 началась первого февраля 1939 года на заводе в Кирове под руководством Н.Ф. Шашмурина.
За основу был взят все тот же танк СМК. Хоть КВ и был спроектирован на базе СМК, но он имел одно огромное отличие – одну башню. Это позволило сделать танк меньших размеров, что положительно сказывалось на ходовых и бронехарактеристиках, т.к. можно было установить более прочные бронепластины на танк не в ущерб его проходимости.

В апреле того же года был одобрен технический макет танка и отправлен на производство опытного образца. В сентябре 1939 года танки КВ и СМК выкатили на испытательный полигон в Кубинке. После проведения испытаний был выбран танк КВ. Из-за чего? Во-первых: из-за одной башни, с неплохим на то время орудием, хорошего бронирования, и, во-вторых из-за его массы всего в 43 тонны.

Кв 1 танк

19 декабря 1939 года танк КВ был принят на вооружении советской армии. Танк был назван в честь народного комиссара СССР Клима Ворошилова.

Вооружение тяжелого танка КВ-1

В начале на танк КВ-1 оснащался двумя спаренными пушками калибрами 76,2-мм и 45-мм. Позже после испытаний вместо 45-мм пушки 20К установили пулемет ДТ***-29. Во время войны с Финляндией пушку 76,2-мм Л-11 заменили на 76-мм пушку Ф-34. Осень 1941 года КВ-1 был перевооружен пушкой ЗиС-5, т.к. она была более надежной в отличии от Ф-34. Пушка ЗиС-5 имела большую длину ствола – это тоже послужило одной из причин к отказу от Ф-34.

Кв 1 танк

Характеристиках орудия

  • Масса орудия, кг – 455
  • Начальная скорость полета бронебойного снаряда, м/с, — 662
  • Начальная скорость полета подкалиберного снаряда, м/с, — 950
  • Начальная скорость полета Оскол.-Фугас. снаряда, м/с, — 680
  • Максимальная дальность полета Оскол.-Фугас. снаряда, м – 1329
  • Прицельная дальность, м, — 1500
  • Углы вертикальной наводки, град.: -5°…+25°

Бронепробиваемость:

  • Бронебойный, На расстоянии 500 м, мм/град. — 84/90°
  • Бронебойный, На расстоянии 1,5 км, мм/град. — 69/90°
  • Скорострельность, выстр./мин – От 4 до 8

Дополнительное вооружение:

Три пулемета ДТ, калибра 7,62-мм. Один спаренный пулемет, другой курсовой, установленный во лбу корпуса, а третий установлен в корме башне.

Тактико-Технические Характеристики танка КВ-1

  • Масса, т – 47
  • Экипаж, ч. – 5. Командир, Механик-водитель, Наводчик, Заряжающий, Стрелок-радист.
  • Длина корпуса, мм — 6675
  • Ширина корпуса, мм — 3320
  • Высота, мм – 2710

Бронирование:

  • Лоб корпуса (верх), мм/град. — 75 / 30°
  • Лоб корпуса (середина), мм/град. — 40 / 65°
  • Лоб корпуса (низ), мм/град. — 75 / 30°
  • Борт корпуса, мм/град. — 75 / 0°
  • Корма корпуса (верх), мм/град. — 60 / 50°
  • Корма корпуса (низ), мм/град. — 70 / 0—90°
  • Днище, мм — 30—40
  • Крыша корпуса, мм — 30—40
  • Лоб башни, мм/град. — 75 / 20°
  • Маска орудия, мм/град. — 90
  • Борт башни, мм/град. — 75 / 15°
  • Корма башни, мм/град. — 75 / 15°
  • Крыша башни, мм — 40

Ходовые качества:

  • Двигатель В-2К мощность , л.с. — 500
  • Максимальная скорость по шоссе, км/ч — 34
  • Запас хода по шоссе, км — 150-225
  • Удельная мощность, л. с./т — 11,6
  • Преодолеваемый подъём, град. – Неизвестно.

Модернизации танка КВ-1

КВ-1С – Уменьшены габариты и бортовое бронирование танка.За счет этого увеличилась скорость и маневренность танка.
Новая коробка передач.

Так же добавлена командирская башенка, которая отсутствовала на КВ-1.
Более мощный двигатель в 600 л.с., а также много, много мелкий улучшений и модернизаций, которые очень долго можно перечислять.

Боевое применение тяжелого танка Клим Ворошилов (КВ-1)

Первое боевое применение датируется 17 декабря 1939 года при прорыве линии Маннергейма. Однако участвовал лишь опытный образец танка. Серийное производство было запущено только в 1940 году.

Великая Отечественная война(1941-1944) – Активно принимал участие в ВОВ. За 1940-1942 было произведено 2769 танков. Правда, до конца войны не воевал. До 1943 года(появление танка «Тигр») КВ-1 был самым мощным танком Второй Мировой войны, который сыграл значительную роль при сдерживания натиска немецких войск.

Кв 1 танк

Кв 1 танк

Кв 1 танк

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Танк КВ, или, как его называли немцы, «Gespenst» (призрак) — это настоящая металлическая крепость, но даже такая надежная глыба не смогла бы совершить подвиг под Расейняем без холодного расчета и ненависти к захватчикам. О семи сантиметрах стали и одном экипаже, который стал для немцев олицетворением русского характера и несгибаемой воли, — в этом материале.

К вечеру 23 июня 1941 года 6-я танковая дивизия вермахта захватила литовский город Расейняй и форсировала реку Дубисса. Поставленные перед дивизией задачи были выполнены, но немцев, уже имевших опыт кампаний на западе, неприятно поразило упорное сопротивление советских войск. Одно из подразделений группы полковника Эрхарда Рауса попало под огонь снайперов, занимавших позиции на фруктовых деревьях, росших на лугу.

Снайперы убили нескольких немецких офицеров, задержали наступление немецких подразделений почти на час, не дав им возможности быстро окружить советские части. Снайперы были заведомо обречены, поскольку оказались внутри расположения немецких войск. Но они выполняли задачу до конца. На западе ничего подобного немцы не встречали.

Каким образом единственный КВ-1 оказался утром 24 июня в тылу группы Рауса — непонятно. Не исключено, что он просто заблудился. Тем не менее, в итоге танк перекрыл единственную дорогу, ведущую из тыла к позициям группы.

Факт остается фактом: один танк сдерживал продвижение боевой группы «Раус»… Причем, задержала на целые сутки одним KB, блокировавшим дорогу к мосту через реку Дубисса,  и таким образом лишила снабжения половину дивизии. Боевая группа — это практически половина дивизии и в данном случае, наиболее мощная.

Посмотрите состав боевой группы «Раус»:

  1. II танковый полк
  2. I/4-й моторизованный полк
  3. II/76-й артиллерийский полк
  4. Рота 57-го танкового саперного батальона
  5. Рота 41-го батальона истребителей танков
  6. Батарея II/411-го зенитного полка
  7. 6-й мотоциклетный батальон

И это всё против 4 человек!!! КВ-1, экипаж которого составляет 4 человека, «обменял» себя на 12 грузовиков, 4 противотанковые пушки, 1 зенитное орудие, возможно, на несколько танков, а также на несколько десятков убитых и умерших от ран немцев.

Все пять боевых эпизодов — разгром колонны грузовиков, уничтожение противотанковой батареи, уничтожение зенитки, стрельба по саперам, последний бой с танками — суммарно вряд ли заняли даже час. Остальное время экипаж КВ гадал, с какой стороны и в какой форме их будут уничтожать в следующий раз. Особенно показателен бой с зениткой. Танкисты сознательно медлили, пока немцы не установили пушку и не начали готовиться к стрельбе, — чтобы самим выстрелить наверняка и кончить дело одним снарядом. Попробуйте хотя бы примерно представить себе такое ожидание.

Более того, если в первый день экипаж КВ еще мог надеяться на приход своих, то на второй, когда свои не пришли и даже шум боя у Расейняя затих, стало яснее ясного: железная коробка, в которой они жарятся второй день, достаточно скоро превратится в их общий гроб. Они приняли это как данность и продолжали воевать.

Итак, при сопровождении нескольких наших пленных на автомашине в тыл немцев, был обнаружен прямо на дороге сверхтяжелый танк КВ-1, который заблокировал единственный путь снабжения группы Рауса. Увидев танк, наши бойцы набросились на охрану, завязалась борьба, перестрелка — в результате несколько красноармейцев спрыгнули с машины и скрылись в лесу, а остальные были убиты.

Автомобиль немцев быстро развернулся и примчался обратно на плацдарм, чтобы сообщить эту принеприятную весть для немцев. При этом обнаружилось, что экипаж танка повредил телефонную связь со штабом дивизии гитлеровцев и уничтожил 12 грузовиков со снабжением, которые шли из Расейняя.

Все попытки обойти наш танк оказались безуспешными. Машины либо вязли в грязи, либо сталкивались с разрозненными подразделениями Красной Армии, все еще блуждающими по лесу.

Тогда гитлеровцы решили уничтожить танк. Противотанковая батарея, состоящая из четырех 50 мм пушек, скрытно выдвинулась в сторону танка на расстояние прямого выстрела и открыла огонь. Было зафиксировано восемь попаданий. Надо было видеть ликование и радость немцев при этом. Но танку хоть бы хны… И тут, к удивлению врагов, башня КВ-1 медленно разворачивается и делает четыре выстрела. В результате два орудия разнесены в клочья, а два повреждены так, что невозможно исправить в полевых условиях! Личный состав немцев потерял несколько человек убитыми и ранеными.

Русский танк по-прежнему наглухо блокировал дорогу, поэтому немцы оказались буквально парализованными. Глубоко потрясенные немецкие солдаты вернулись на плацдарм. Недавно полученное оружие, которому они безоговорочно доверяли, оказалось совершенно беспомощным против чудовищного русского танка.

Стало ясно, что из всего оружия, которым обладала группа Рауса, только 88-мм зенитные орудия с их тяжелыми бронебойными снарядами могут справиться с уничтожением стального исполина. Во второй половине дня одно такое орудие было выведено из боя под Расейняем и начало осторожно подползать к танку с юга. КВ-1 все еще был развернут на север, так как именно с этого направления была проведена предыдущая атака.

Хотя танк не двигался со времени боя с противотанковой батареей, оказалось, что его экипаж и командир имеют железные нервы. Они хладнокровно следили за приближением зенитки, не мешая ей, так как пока орудие двигалось, оно не представляло никакой угрозы для танка. К тому же, чем ближе окажется зенитка, тем легче будет уничтожить ее. Наступил критический момент в дуэли нервов, когда расчет принялся готовить зенитку к выстрелу. Для экипажа танка настало время действовать. Пока артиллеристы, страшно нервничая, наводили и заряжали орудие, танк развернул башню и выстрелил первым! Каждый снаряд попадал в цель. Тяжело поврежденная зенитка свалилась в канаву, несколько человек расчета погибли, а остальные были вынуждены бежать. Пулеметный огонь танка помешал вывезти орудие и подобрать погибших.

Оптимизм немецких солдат погиб вместе с 88-мм орудием. Они провели не самый лучший день, жуя консервы, так как подвезти горячую пищу было невозможно.

С наступлением ночи немцы решили подорвать танк с помощью взрывчатки. Для этого были отобраны лучшие саперы группы. Когда они подошли к танку на достаточно близкое расстояние, выяснилась удивительная вещь — к танку подошли несколько гражданских ( видимо, из местного населения или партизаны), постучали по башне, люк откинулся и им передали еду. Экипаж благополучно поужинал и лег спать внутри танка. Немцы в это время приблизились к танку, заложили несколько мощных зарядов и подорвали. Недолго длилось очередное ликование немцев — тут же ожил танковый пулемет и стал поливать свинцом все вокруг. Гитлеровцы еле унесли ноги!

Следующая попытка атаки отважного танка была предпринята утром 25 июня. Теперь уже немцы пошли на хитрость — была проведена ложная атака танками PzKw-35t (сами они ничего не могли сделать КВ-1 со своими 37 мм пушками), а под их прикрытием подвезли другое 88 мм зенитное орудие поближе. Экипаж был увлечен боем с верткими и легкими танками противника и не заметил опасности. Да и местность способствовала этому. Экипаж танка КВ-1 был уверен в прочности своей брони, которая напоминала слоновью шкуру и отражала все снаряды, продолжая блокировать дорогу.

Зенитное орудие заняло позицию рядом с тем местом, где накануне уже было уничтожено одно такое же. Его ствол нацелился на танк и прогремел первый выстрел. Раненный КВ-1 попытался развернуть башню назад, по немецкие зенитчики за это время успели сделать еще 2 выстрела. Башня перестала вращаться, однако танк не загорелся. Были сделаны еще 4 выстрела бронебойными снарядами из 88-мм зенитного орудия.

Свидетели этой смертельной дуэли захотели подойти поближе, чтобы проверить результаты своей стрельбы. К своему величайшему изумлению, они обнаружили, что только 2 снаряда пробили броню, тогда как 5 остальных 88-мм снарядов лишь сделали глубокие выбоины на ней. Они также нашли 8 синих кругов, отмечающих места попадания 50-мм снарядов. Результатом вылазки саперов были серьезное повреждение гусеницы и неглубокая выщербина на стволе орудия. Зато  не нашли никаких следов попаданий снарядов 37-мм пушек танков PzKW-35t.

Внезапно ствол орудия начал двигаться и немецкие  солдаты в ужасе бросились прочь. Только один из саперов сохранил самообладание и быстро сунул ручную гранату в пробоину, сделанную снарядом в нижней части башни. Прогремел глухой взрыв и крышка люка отлетела в сторону. Внутри танка лежали тела отважного экипажа, которые до этого получили лишь ранения. Глубоко потрясенные этим героизмом, немцы решили похоронить  их со всеми воинскими почестями. Они сражались до последнего дыхания, но это была лишь одна маленькая драма великой войны.

Сегодня трудно представить, сколько храбрости они показали, как горячо горела ненависть в их сердцах. Ведь неподвижный танк — хорошая цель, это стальной гроб для всего экипажа. Мы никогда не узнаем, что говорили тогда танкисты, о чем думали… Но их поступок свидетельствует, что это были люди необыкновенной воли. Командир танка понял, какую важнейшую позицию он занял. И сознательно стал ее удерживать. Вряд ли стояние танка на одном месте можно трактовать как отсутствие инициативы, слишком умело действовал экипаж. Наоборот, стояние и было инициативой. Экипаж мог подорвать танк, чтоб не достался врагу и спокойно уйти к своим, к партизанам. Но они приняли единственно верное решение и остались принять свой последний бой.

Боевой эпизод начала войны под Расейняем — лишь один из ярких моментов, характеризующих массовый героизм советских солдат в годы Великой Отечественной Войны. Вечная память погибшим героям!

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